It has been the backbone of China's industry for 6

2022-08-09
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60 years, cast the backbone of China's industry

60 years, with a flick of the fingers

In the past 60 years, China's industrial development has undergone an amazing change. This amazing change includes two great changes

transformation 1: it has achieved a great transformation from a large agricultural country to an industrial country

China's industrialization started on the basis of poverty and poverty. Different from the industrialization mode in which the first batch of new energy vehicle body in white manufactured by the aluminum Institute of China was delivered in Beijing and the light textile industry started, China chose the unconventional path of "giving priority to the development of heavy chemical industry and national defense industry"

the first Five-Year Plan period from 1953 to 1957 was the first period in the 60 year history of China's industrial development in which important achievements were made. Among them, the key construction centered on 156 projects is known as the cornerstone of new China's industry: build a number of large-scale key enterprises and become the backbone of China's modern industry; The pattern of eight industrial zones, including the northeast industrial base centered on Shenyang and Anshan, has initially formed, laying the foundation for the development of China's industrialization; Self reliance, hard work, from nothing but this is beneficial to the detection of materials with very large or very small elongation and get accurate experimental results to many "first in China". For example, China's first steam locomotive was successfully developed, China's first tractor was successfully manufactured, and China's first car was successfully developed...

from 1964 to 1978, China carried out a 15 year long three-line construction spanning three five-year plans, and the pattern of large-scale industrial development in the central and western regions began to take shape. 45 large-scale production and scientific research bases and more than 30 emerging industrial cities, including Jiuquan and Xichang space satellite launch centers, Gezhouba and Liujiaxia hydropower stations, were built during this period. China's first atomic bomb and China's first hydrogen bomb exploded successfully during this period, and China's first man-made earth satellite was also successfully launched during this period

After the reform and opening up in 1978, China's industrialization has entered a period of accelerated development. Taking Baosteel as an example, as a product of reform and opening up, on the second day after the closing of the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Baosteel, the largest industrial project introduced from abroad after the founding of new China, held a commencement ceremony. In 1996, China's steel output exceeded 100 million tons for the first time, becoming the world's largest steel producer. Since 2003, the steel output has continuously exceeded 200 million tons, 300 million tons and 400 million tons. In 2008, the crude steel output exceeded 500 million tons, accounting for nearly 40% of the global output - while the national steel output in 1949 was only 158000 tons, less than one thousandth of the world's steel output. As the largest iron and steel enterprise in China, Baosteel's comprehensive competitiveness has ranked among the top three in the world

China has become a real big producer of steel, oil, automobiles, non-ferrous metals, machinery, textiles, light industry and building materials. As of 2008, China's output of industrial products has ranked first in the world with 210 species; Among the total installed capacity of power generation in China, domestic units have reached more than 80%. Among them, domestic 1million kW ultra supercritical thermal power units and domestic 750 kV AC power transmission and transformation equipment have been put into operation; With an annual output of 10 million tons of large-scale refinery equipment, the localization rate reaches 90%; A large number of large-scale complete sets of technical equipment, such as a large-scale new dry process cement production line with a daily output of 4000 tons, 600000 tons of ethylene, 300000 tons of synthetic ammonia, and one million tons of potash fertilizer, have achieved autonomy. With the rapid development of high-tech industry, its scale leaps to the third place in the world, and its export volume ranks among the top two in the world. The high-tech industry represented by information industry, aerospace, biomedicine and new materials has become a new growth point of China's industrial economic development. From the world-renowned "two bombs and one satellite" to the "Shenzhou VII" flying in space, Chinese industry has achieved historic breakthroughs and leaps in some cutting-edge fields, such as manned spaceflight, large carrier rockets, lunar exploration and satellite navigation

"you will be at the top of the mountain and see all the small mountains." In the 60 years since the founding of new China, Chinese industry has been the most active productive force and the most rapidly reformed field. Among them, the first 30 years after the founding of new China initially laid the foundation for the development of China's industrialization; In the 30 years after the reform and opening-up in 1978, China has fully realized the accelerated development of industrialization. China's modern industrial system has taken shape in an all-round way, and has built a complete industrial system and rich supporting chains composed of a complete raw material and energy industry, equipment industry, consumer goods industry, national defense science and technology industry, and electronic information industry. Calculated at comparable prices, the industrial added value in 1978 was only 160.7 billion yuan. In 2008, the industrial added value exceeded 10trillion yuan, reaching 10736.7 billion yuan, an increase of 23 times. In the 60 years since the founding of new China, the achievements of Chinese industry have been unprecedented, remarkable and huge. The face of China's industry has undergone earth shaking changes. The agricultural country with the largest population in the past has now become an industrial country attracting worldwide attention

transformation 2: China's industry has experienced a great transformation from a planned economy to a market economy

the reform and opening up of China's industry has obvious phased characteristics. From the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in 1978 to Deng Xiaoping's "Southern Tour" speech in 1992, China's industrial reform and opening up has experienced "crossing the river by feeling the stone", starting from decentralization and profit transfer to institutional innovation, starting from the contract system to the establishment of a modern enterprise system, and starting from all areas of the national economy to all links of the planned economy to initiate a comprehensive breakthrough

In 2001, China officially joined the world trade organization, marking that the socialist market economy began to integrate with international practices, China began to become a "world factory", and Chinese industry began to integrate into the global economic system. A new pattern of all-round opening to the outside world has begun to take shape, and a new pattern of common competition and development of multiple economic components has begun to take shape. Profound changes have taken place in the enterprise ownership structure of China's industrial economy. According to the total industrial output value, in 2006, state-owned and state-controlled industrial enterprises, private industrial enterprises and "three capital" industrial enterprises accounted for 31.2%, 37.2% and 31.6% respectively. They have been "divided into three parts of the world". After the baptism of market competition, China's industry has become more market-oriented both in system and mechanism

great changes have taken place in the organizational structure of China's industrial enterprises. At present, there are 1833 industrial enterprise groups in China, with assets of 19634.1 billion yuan, accounting for 55.6% of the assets of all industrial enterprises above designated size. A number of large enterprise groups with international competitiveness, represented by central enterprises, continue to exert the control, driving force and influence of the state-owned economy in important industries related to the lifeline of the national economy and important fields related to national security. Township enterprises have become the largest growth sector of China's industry and have played an important role in industrial clusters

"with the help of good wind, send me to the clouds." In the 60 years since the founding of new China, in a short moment, it is full of changes and changes of the times, and full of the atmosphere of the industrial age. China's industrial growth and structural changes have gone through 200-300 years of history in developed countries, which can be called historic changes

China's industry, which bears the mission and has been the backbone of China's industry for 60 years. As an industry with the fastest development, the largest scale, the widest influence in China's economy and the most sensitive to reform and opening up, China's industry plays a decisive role in the national economy, which is related to the overall situation, irreplaceable, and affects the whole body. This "backbone" role of Chinese industry is highlighted in four aspects -

first, the supporting role of Chinese industry in China's economy. From 1978 to 2008, for 30 years, China's industry grew at an average annual rate of 11.98%, supporting an average annual GDP growth of 9.60%. The rapid growth of China's industry has become a powerful engine for China's economic and social development. Therefore, China's economy has experienced a golden period of sustained and rapid development. According to the report of the United Nations' world economic situation and Outlook 2009, China's contribution to global economic growth in 2008 has risen to 22%. China has become the third largest economy in the world. Its total foreign trade volume has ranked among the top in the world. China's foreign exchange reserves have exceeded US $2trillion. China's economy has become the leader of the global economy. All this is closely related to the important supporting role played by Chinese industry

second, the guiding role of Chinese industry in other fields. The growth of China's economy shows a strong trend of China's industrial guidance. The rapid growth of Chinese industry has injected vitality and impetus into the reform and development of modern agriculture and modern service industry. Whether in the field of investment, export or consumption, the guiding role of Chinese industry can be described as taking the lead and galloping. Taking the relationship between industrialization and urbanization in China as an example, the rapid development of industrialization has accelerated the rise of a large number of industrial cities, thus forming a regional industrial development pattern of the eastern coast, the western development, the revitalization of the northeast old industrial base and the rise of the central region, It has also achieved such a multi-level, focused and point-to-point local reform and opening-up pattern as "Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen and other special economic zones coastal open cities Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Southeast Fujian, Bohai rim and other coastal economic development zones inland"

third, the role of Chinese industry in promoting China's image. According to the latest ranking of the world's top 500 enterprises, Chinese mainland enterprises set a new record of 34 on the list, compared with only 6 10 years ago. Most of the 34 listed enterprises are industrial enterprises. The rapid growth of China's industry has significantly improved China's international status and international competitiveness. It is worth noting that the ranking of Chinese industrial enterprises among the world's top 500 has risen significantly, and Sinopec has entered the top 10 for the first time this year, ranking ninth; Baosteel rose 39 places to 220, and has entered the world's top 500 for six consecutive years; Jiangsu Shagang Group, newly listed this year, is a private enterprise in mainland China. Compared with this year, kiefel also established all its packaging businesses into a kiefel packaging division. Before that, all large state-owned enterprises were selected, and private enterprises were included in the list, which is undoubtedly a great progress

fourth, the role of Chinese industry in enriching the people. Mao Zedong said in "on the coalition government": "without industry, there will be no solid national defense, no welfare of the people, and no prosperity of the country." In the 60 years since the founding of new China, the development of China's industrialization has enabled more and more Chinese people to enjoy the benefits of industrial civilization and provided jobs for more and more migrant workers. This means that China's industrialization is not only powerful, but also enriching the people. In a sense, it can be said that China's industrialization is the largest cause of people's livelihood, and the development of China's industry is of great significance to people's livelihood

especially in October 2008, the Third Plenary Session of the 17th CPC Central Committee was held, which marked that China's industry began to enter a new stage of promoting agriculture with industry and rural areas with cities, forming a new stage of urban and rural economic and social development integration. In such a new stage, people have a clearer view of the relationship between industrialization and internationalization, the relationship between industrialization and urbanization, the relationship between industrialization and informatization, and the relationship between industrialization and marketization

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